For example, is the job candidate mentioned above similar to you in race, gender, socioeconomic background?
Even seemingly minor things like clothing choices, speaking style and gesturing can make a big difference in determining how you evaluate another person.
Our brains tend to fall for the dangerous judgment error known as the “halo effect,” which causes some characteristics we like and identify with to cast a positive “halo” on the rest of the person. It’s opposite the “horns effect,” in which one or two negative traits change how we view the whole.
The halo effect and horns effect are two of many dangerous judgment errors, which are mental blind spots resulting from how our brain is wired that scholars in cognitive neuroscience and behavioral economics call cognitive biases.
For example, you need to remember that just because a person is similar to you does not mean she will be the best employee.
The research is detailed that our intuitions often don’t serve us well in making the best hiring decisions.
Such reliance on intuition is especially harmful to workplace diversity and paves the path to bias in hiring, including in terms of race, disability, gender and sex.
Despite the numerous studies showing that structured interventions are needed to overcome bias in hiring, unfortunately, business leaders and HR personnel tend to over-rely on unstructured interviews and other intuitive decision-making practices.
Due to our overconfidence bias, a tendency to evaluate our decision-making abilities as better than they are, leaders often go with their guts on hires and other business decisions rather than use analytical decision-making tools that have demonstrably better outcomes.
A proper fix is to note how the applicant is different from you, and give them “positive points” for it.
Alternatively, create structured interviews with a set of standardized questions asked in the same order to every applicant.
Comprehending subtle cues
Let’s take a different situation.
Say you’ve known a business colleague for many years, collaborated with her on a wide variety of projects and have an established relationship.
Imagine yourself having a conversation with her about a potential collaboration.
For some reason, you feel less comfortable than usual.
Most likely, your intuitions are picking up subtle cues about something being off.
Maybe it’s nothing.
Maybe that person is having a bad day or didn’t get enough sleep the night before.
However, that person may also be trying to pull the wool over your eyes.
When people lie, they behave in ways that are similar to other indicators of discomfort, anxiety and rejection, and it’s tough to tell what’s causing these signals.
Overall, this is an excellent time to take your gut reaction into account and be more suspicious than usual.