Abdulhamid II, His Imperial Majesty, The Sultan Abdülhamid II, Emperor of the Ottomans, Caliph of the Faithful, Abd Al-Hamid II Khan Ghazi, The Great Hakan, (by his opponents) The Crimson Sultan (22 September 1842 – 10 February 1918) was the 99th caliph of Islam and the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was the last Sultan to exert effective control over the Ottoman Empire.
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